Meaning Operators We are using meaning operators in two ways – either as complete or partial branching.
Complete branching:
The word “run” is either a noun or a verb – there are no other possibilities. While we wait to determine which it is, we connect to the word, then move the connection to a particular part of speech child.
Partial branching for “die”:

The head node is general, the child nodes are specific cases, which cover perhaps 10% of the meaning of “die”.
When we are sitting at the head node, there is no indication that we have discounted the applicability of the child nodes.
We could handle this by introducing a state for the connection – temporary or permanent – or introduce an additional child node, which represents everything else but the existing child nodes – let’s call it “NotOtherChildren”.

That is, in this case, it is a device for cutting or molding of metal which is not an engraved device or a device for cutting threads. This would be much more meaningful, but wou…

Metaphorical Meanings

Here is the verb “bite”.
Sense 0
Definition: (of a person or animal) use the teeth to cut into something
Example count: 2
Example 0: she was biting a slice of bread
Example 1: Rosa bit into a cupcake Sub Sense count: 6
Sub Sense 0
Definition: use the teeth in order to inflict injury on
Example count: 3
Example 0: he was chased and bitten by a police dog
………………… Sub Sense 3
Definition: (of a fish) take the bait or lure on the end of a fishing line into the mouth
Example count: 1
Example 0: I marvel at how easily and eagerly a chub will bite
But not necessarily be hooked.
Sub Sense 4
Definition: (of a person) be persuaded to accept a deal or offer
Sub Sense 4 – the person “biting” on an offer derives its meaning from Sub Sense 3 - a fish taking a lure – the fish is not in control of the situation. How do we set up the association, when a person is not a fish, although the offer may be alluring? Just listing it as a separate sub sense is not enough – it is not going to acquire association by osmosis (w…

Unconscious Meaning Integration

Using the analogy of a tennis player and their ability to modify a complex unconscious model they do not understand, we have been trying to look at how the unconscious mind shapes and integrates new meanings as it receives them. Here is an example.
Life’s a Beach  Here is Oxford’s machine interface take on the verb “beach”. It uses senses and sub senses - that is, a depth of two (something that may be satisfactory for words with a few meaning, but probably not for words with 50 to 70 meanings). We will come back to that later, when we take on "run" and "cut".

Sense count: 1
 Sense 0 Definition: run or haul up (a boat or ship) on to a beach
 Example count: 1
 Example 0: at the water's edge a rowing boat was beached
 Sub Sense count: 3
 Sub Sense 0
 Definition: (of an angler) land (a fish) on a beach
 Example count: 1
 Example 0: he managed to beach a fine trout
 Sub Sense 1
 Definition: (of a whale or similar animal) become stranded out of the water
 Example count: 1

Artificial Intelligence Hits the Barrier of Meaning - NYT

Someone pointing out how terrible is most AI

From The New York Times:

Artificial Intelligence Hits the Barrier of Meaning

They could have been harsher when talking about statistics and algorithms as a basis for AI

IBM Project Debater

Article in the Guardian

By Kenan Malik

The article issues a plea for something that gets inside - sounds like a job for Active Structure.

"And, brilliant though the programming is, it is in these areas that Debater is weakest. It takes sentences from its library of documents and prebuilt arguments and strings them together."

The "programming" is the problem.

"What Hammond is referring to, however, is the question of meaning and meaning is central to what distinguishes the least intelligent of humans from the most intelligent of machines."

Some folk interacted with Eliza, and thought it a human, so "the least intelligent of humans" is a low bar.

"I only make sense of myself insofar as I live in, and relate to, a community of other thinking, feeling, talking beings. The translation of the mechanical brain proc…
We have added a new slideshow using an analogy of a garden to illustrate the building and maintaining of knowledge structure. Your comments would be useful - is the analogy laboured, unhelpful?

Knowledge Acquisition Strategies

The NSW government is proposing “decluttering” the school syllabus. The minister say the change will be focused on knowledge acquisition. What can KM offer? Some random thoughts on knowledge acquisition methodologies. Teaching language and literature is quite different to teaching about knowledge acquisition. What is knowledge, and why is acquiring it worthwhile? When can I reliably back-construct? How should human limitations be managed in acquiring knowledge? English is a strange beast – monstrous ambiguity lurks behind the curtain – words have on average three meanings, with one standout having 74 meanings. Grammar sounds nice, until you see there are roughly 70 categories of words that have multiple parts of speech. Some have thousands of members, some there is only one instance – Noun and verb – cost, costs Preposition, adjective, verb – absent (slowly seeping into Australian English) Pronoun, noun, verb, determiner(?) - mine One instance can be hard to work out – put a string o…