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Improved outcomes with the assistance of cognitive machines Introduction Throughout history, people have been designing tools to compensate for human limitations and allow them to perform feats otherwise beyond our natural capabilities. To make up for their lack of speed and stealth, humans invented boomerangs, arrows, spears and nets for hunting. Due to lack of strength, humans developed picks, axes, shovels, hammers, cranes and diggers for construction and farming tasks. Spectacles were invented to compensate for malfunctioning human eyes and telescopes and microscopes were invented to extend the range over which we can see. We have even developed tools such as x-ray, ultrasound and infrared imaging to see the otherwise invisible. To extend the distance and speed over which we can travel, the wheel, bicycles, aeroplanes and spaceships have been developed. And to overcome our limited memory for numbers and speed of performing calculations, humans developed the abacus, pocket calculat…
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Dictionary Problems

Definition or Information? For a bird:
Definition: a warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrate distinguished by the possession of feathers, wings, and a beak and (typically) by being able to fly

What part is definition, what part is information?
No modern bird has teeth, but if a toothed bird flew out of some jungle tomorrow, no-one would question whether it was a bird.
Definition: an animal with feathers and forelimbs modified as wings, not a dinosaur
Information: a warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrate with a beak.

We can break it down into flightless birds and flighted birds, and birds of prey, and seabirds...

Deducibility Bank (river)
Definition: the land alongside or sloping down to a river or lake
River
Definition: a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, a lake, or another such stream

Is this sufficient for a machine to deduce that a river has two banks along its entire length?
Circularity bewildering -> confusing or perplexing -> confusing -> bewilderin…

Multiple Parents

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We have been looking at how many connections will be required to connect the actual word, part of speech and definition. The answer is a problem.
For verbs and plural nouns, it is necessary to have two connections bring the parents of the object to the object.

The definition may be connected directly to the plural noun, or it may be connected to the singular noun. We need to pick up both the definition and the part of speech. We will do without the logical control, and can have any number of children which share the same definition. We search on the first connection, find the Strand definition, reach Thread and stop. We will climb any meaning tree, on the understanding higher levels encompass lower levels. We search on the second connection, avoiding any nodes we encountered on the first search – that is, we won’t revisitThread, so we won’t see the other definitions.

A more complicated case, where the plural form has its own definitions, as well as picking up the definitions of the si…
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Not Particularly           Do you like dancing?           Not particularly.
What is “not particularly” doing?
It is not saying he particularly dislikes dancing.
If we create the structure of
He does not particularly like dancing
what do we get?
The adverb is putting out a logical. With a false on its input, it can’t put out a false on its output – its inverse is “ToBeGenerally”.

You could argue a False into a ToBeParticularly should put out an unknown – 0.5 – midway between true and false. An argument for another day. Right now, we need a structure to build.
Does this mean he doesn’t like dancing?
No, it meanshe does not prefer it to other things he likes.
Or it could just mean he is being polite, and actually hates dancing.
So, what about “especially”?
He despises them all, especially Sylvester.


This doesn’t change the truth value of the despisement of Sylvester, but it does add an extra layer, so the people he prefers to despise can rise to the top.
As another example, “infinitely”…
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Figurative Here is an attempt at figurative connection:
Chameleon
  Sense 0
    Definition: a small slow-moving Old World lizard with a prehensile tail, long extensible tongue, protruding eyes that rotate independently, and a highly developed ability to change color.      Sense 1
     Figurative: Sense 0
      Definition: a person who changes their opinions or behavior according to the situation
      Example count: 1
       Example 0: voters have misgivings about his performance as a political chameleon Problems The target does not specify what its figurative properties are – are they protruding eyes, rotatable eye sockets, a tongue longer than its body, or the ability to change colour? (or the ability to change a seemingly fixed attribute – other animals have this ability – cuttlefish, but they are not celebrated the way a chameleon is – Old World probably tells us why). Does “to change colour” sell the chameleon short – it can change the colour of any part of its body?
A barnacle i…